All About Spirulina

Spirulina is an aquatic micro-vegetable organism; a microscopic fresh water plant composed of transparent bubble-thin cells stacked end-to-end that form a helical spiral filament.  Spirulina has been eaten by many cultures throughout history; it was a prized food of the Aztecs & Maya; the Kanembu people, who live along the shores of Lake Chad, still use it today.  Spirulina is an ideal food to feed a starving world; it's been used in third world countries to relieve hunger with great effectiveness because it is inexpensive, nutritionally compact, doesn't spoil easily as it requires no refrigeration.  Kept dry and airtight, without excessive exposure to bright sunlight, spirulina will remain fresh & vibrant with a shelf life of up to 5 years.

The health benefits of eating spirulina [regularly] are extraordinary, almost unparalleled; the quantity & diversity of the nutrients it contains are superabundant; a person can't overdose nor eat too much spirulina.  There are NO toxic side effects with spirulina the way there are with other blue green algae such as AFA (Afanzamon Flos Aqua), commonly known as Bluegreen Algae.  Spirulina is a detoxifying whole-food, not a concentrate, nor an extract; when dehydrated at low temperatures (below 115º F) it is considered raw food.  It's feasible one could survive & remain healthy, vibrant & full of energy eating only spirulina & drinking water.

Spirulina contains more beta-carotene than any other whole food.  Beta-carotene determines how our cells communicate with one another.  Research has demonstrated that beta-carotene can lower cholesterol, treat wounds and reduce the size of tumors.  "Beta-carotene opens the membrane communication channels of cancerous & precancerous cells, allowing the body to signal the cancerous cells to stop dividing.  Therefore, foods rich in beta-carotene may not only be able to prevent, but also reverse cancers.” (Wolf 1992, Spirulina, Nature’s Superfood).  Natural beta-carotene is far superior to synthetic beta-carotene both chemically & physically; it's absorbed into the body better than synthetic; it doesn't build up in the body & become toxic. 


Spirulina contains more bio-chelated organic iron than any other whole-food.  Bio-chelated iron is iron easily assimilated into the body.  Spirulina has 58 times the iron of raw spinach and 28 times that of raw beef liver.  It is the richest source of natural antioxidants of any whole-food source.  It contains every natural known antioxidant including zinc, manganese, selenium, copper, vitamin E, vitamins B-1 & B-6, the amino acid methionine, and of course, beta-carotene.  It is rich in chlorophyll- much richer than wheat grass and alfalfa.


Spirulina effectively suppresses the appetite.  Its whole food nutrition facilitates low-calorie dieting without the energy draining and health destroying nutritional deficiencies that are the downfall of most weight-loss programs.  Spirulina naturally satisfies hunger because it fulfills the body’s nutritional & biochemical needs.


Virtually all multiple-vitamin/mineral supplements today are laboratory-synthesized chemical compounds.  According to internationally acclaimed author and nutritionist Dr. Paavo Airola:  "For optimum assimilation & biological activity, it is wisest & safest to take vitamins & minerals in the form of food supplements where they occur in their natural form and strength and [to take them] in combination with enzymes and trace elements."


Nutritionally enlightened fitness enthusiasts, body-builders, professional coaches & competitive athletes are reporting increased dynamic energy, enhanced endurance and other exciting performance improvements as a result of incorporating spirulina into their regiments.  Hundreds of Olympic and world champion athletes use spirulina both during training & competition.  Olympian Lee Evans, a double gold medalist and holder of four world records in track & field, says:  "Spirulina improved my training, resulting in faster times... 

it increased my stamina & endurance."  Now a coach, Lee insists all his athletes eat spirulina regularly.


Spirulina’s astounding array of enzymes and other nutrients, make it one of the most nutritionally packed foods in the world.  It is extremely easy to grow and takes less room per cubic centimeter than any other known crop yielding such an enormous amount of nourishment.  For these reasons, among others, NASA considers spirulina an ideal food for space exploration & long-term space travel as water, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon dioxide and sunlight are all that’s needed to grow it.  Spirulina is among the most efficient, oxygen-generating foods in existence; it is slated to be one of the first foods to be grown and eaten on the International Space Station, scheduled to be complete in 2011.  Spirulina is natural by nature; it will never leave you flat after the body has consumed its nutrients.  Scientific studies worldwide continue to demonstrate the incredible health benefits of regularly eating spirulina- without any negative side effects.


Spirulina (Spirulina Plantensis) is absolutely pure. 

Spirulina, one of the oldest foods on the planet, is dried blue-green algae, nothing more.

It has a 95% digestibility rate compared to that of most other foods, which average between 10-15%.

It is extremely high in protein (amino acids), vitamins, and minerals.


The Richest Whole Food Source Of Vitamin E & Beta-Carotene (Pro Vitamin A).

Spirulina has 3 times the Vitamin E than that of raw wheat germ and its biological activity is 49% greater than synthetic vitamin E; it has 25 times the Beta-Carotene than raw carrots.  Unlike manufactured, synthetic vitamins & infused fish liver oils, natural beta- carotene is completely nontoxic- even in mega doses.


Nature’s Richest Source of Vitamin B-12. 

Spirulina is 4-6 times richer than raw beef liver- its nearest rival.

B-12 is known for providing the human body with high energy.


Spirulina Is Nature’s Richest Whole Food Source of Organic Iron.

Spirulina is bio-chelated and completely nontoxic.

It is 58 times richer in organic iron than raw spinach and 28 times richer than raw beef liver.


Spirulina is a Complete Protein. 

Spirulina contains all eight essential amino acids in addition to ten others amino acids.  Most animal proteins contain large amounts of fat; spirulina does not.  Spirulina has almost no cholesterol & less than 4 calories per gram (between 24-40 calories for a recommended normal serving size of 6-10 grams per day).


Contains SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase). 

This essential enzyme is crucial to the body’s ability to assimilate amino acids.  Without SOD's presence in the body, we are unable to create the 10,000’s of long, complex chains of amino acids known as proteins.

Contains Natural Digestive and over 2000 Other Enzymes. 

Enzymes are critical for both digestive & metabolic health.  Spirulina has been scientifically demonstrated to increase reproduction of lacto-bacilli (bacteria that digests our food); it contains over 2000 different enzymes!


Spirulina is a Powerful Nutriceutical. 

The human body is perfectly capable of healing itself if it is provided with the necessary vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other nutrients it needs.  There are many foods that have healing and preventative health qualities, but none possess such a powerful, wide-ranging and diverse group of nutrients as spirulina. Spirulina provides the body with all the proper nutrients it needs to properly heal itself.


Powerful Natural Detoxifier (Show Helpful in Fighting HIV)

Spirulina has a swift cleansing effect on the digestive system & is effective in detoxifying the body’s blood system after several months use; studies have demonstrated it has a positive effect when used to treat HIV.

Shown Helpful for joint pain. 

Spirulina is a rich source Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA), known as a "miracle" ingredient.

GLA is an essential fatty acid proven to be exceptionally helpful in the relief of joint pain.


Spirulina is a Whole Food Unlike Vitamins and other Supplements. 

Most vitamins on the market are comprised of laboratory-synthesized chemical compounds rather than natural sources; vitamin companies are trying to duplicate nature, which can never be done.  

Virtually all synthesized vitamins are mix & match amalgams of extracts & concentrates, some of which can accumulate in the body and become toxic if they're fat soluble.  Spirulina is a completely natural and therefore a superior approach to nutrition; it's also much more economical than most mass-produced vitamin supplements.  Spirulina is a balanced, natural whole food; it’s minerals & vitamins are naturally bio-chelated, meaning they are wrapped in amino acids for excellent assimilation into the body.

Spirulina contains over 100 synergistic nutrients.

It is one of nature’s richest and most complete sources of total organic nutrition. 

Spirulina is Alkaline and Helps Balance your Body’s pH.

It is important that we maintain a balanced body pH, ideally between 7.2-7.4 pH, which is considered neutral. The average American’s body pH is extremely low (as a result of poor dietary habits:  junk food, fast food, over-cooked, processed foods, coffee, soft drinks, etc.); cola, has a pH of 2.7, which is several thousand times more acidic than our bodies.  Maintaining a balanced pH is important because all diseases start, live and thrive in an acidic environment; they do not live well in an alkaline environment- hence the concept of keeping our bodies as alkaline as possible- becoming too alkaline is rare- but not unheard of. 

It's no coincidence the proliferation of processed junk, & fast food matches the steadily rising rates of cancer

Current estimates claim that one-third of all people in the United States will get cancer in their lifetime.

Thirty years ago, cancer in children was almost unheard of.

Now entire hospital wards are dedicated to children with cancer.

The average American is way way too acidic.

Poor, high acidifying diets have a lot to do with why so many people are getting sick.

Spirulina contains:

 • More Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) than any other whole food.

• Phycocyanin, a natural blue pigment not found in any other food on the planet.

• Glycolipids, which have been found to be active against the AIDS virus (Boyd et al 1989).

• A rich natural source of phenylalanine- otherwise known as a “slimmer”.


Spirulina Nutritional Analysis:


Blue-green algae, and spirulina in particular, have a primitive structure with few starch storage cells

and cell membrane proliferation, but rich amounts of ribosomes, the cellular bodies that manufacture protein.

This particular arrangement of cellular components allows for rapid photosynthesis & formation of proteins.

The lack of hard cellular walls assures that spirulina protein is rapidly and easily assimilated by consuming organisms.

Spirulina is approximately 65 to 71 percent protein- depending on strain & growing conditions.

Spirulina's proteins are biologically complete- they provide all eight essential amino acids in the proper ratios.

Most plant foods are not complete proteins because they usually lack one or more amino acids.

Unfortunately, the body cannot store amino acids in anticipation of deficient ones eventually arriving in subsequent meals.

To synthesize protein for the body's repair and maintenance, all dietary protein factors must be present simultaneously

or the amino acids we ingest are wasted.  Furthermore, even if complete proteins are consumed, 

digestive difficulties can prevent assimilation of all needed elements.

Spirulina provides all the required amino acids,

and does so in a form that is five times easier to digest than meat or soy protein.


These eight essential amino acids are found in Spirulina:


ISOLEUCINE (4.13%):      Required for optimal growth, intelligence development and nitrogen equilibrium in the body.

                                               Isoleucine is used to synthesize other non-essential amino acids.


LEUCINE (5.8001%):      Stimulator of brain function increases muscular energy levels.


LYSINE (4.00%):      Building block of blood antibodies strengthens circulatory system & maintains normal cell growth.


METHIONINE (2.17%):      Vital lipotropic (fat and lipid metabolizing) amino acid that maintains liver health.

                                               Methionine is an anti-stress factor; it calms the nerves.


PHENYLALANINE (3.95%):      Required by the thyroid gland for production of thyroxin, which stimulates metabolic rate.


THREONINE (4.17%):      Improves intestinal competence and digestive assimilation.


TRYPTOPHANE (1.1301%):      Increases utilization of B vitamins, improves nerve health and stability of the emotions. 

                                                         Tryptophane promotes a sense of calm.


VALINE (6.0001%):      Stimulates mental capacity and muscle coordination.

The body is ultimately dependent upon nutrient intake for all of its functions.

Of the thousands of biochemical substances acting and interacting in the human body, not one is derived from a vacuum.

Spirulina supplies ten of the twelve non-essential amino acids.  "Non-essential" does not mean that these amino acids are

not needed by the body, but merely indicates that the body can synthesize them itself if it needs to do so- provided the

appropriate nutritional building blocks are available.  Nevertheless, the body is better served if these excellent protein

components are readily and totally available in dietary sources, since all the amino acids must be on hand as the cells

manufacture enzymes, proteins, hormones, brain chemicals and the other products of metabolism.


These are the non-essential amino acids supplied by Spirulina:


ALANINE (5.82%):      Alanine strengthens cellular walls.


ARGININE (5.98%):      Arginine is important to male sexual health as seminal fluid is 80 percent Arginine. 

                                          Arginine also helps detoxify the blood.


ASPARTIC ACID (6.34%):      Aspartic Acid aids in the transformation of carbohydrates into cellular energy.


CYSTINE (0.67%):      Cystine aids pancreatic health, which stabilizes blood sugar and carbohydrate metabolism. 

  Cystine has been used to alleviate some symptoms of food allergy and intolerance.


GLUTAMIC ACID (8.94%):      Glutamic Acid along with glucose is one of the principal fuels for the brain cells. 

                       Glutamic Acid has been used to reduce the craving for alcohol & stabilize mental health.


GLYCINE (3.5%):      Glycine promotes energy and oxygen use in the cells.


HISTIDINE (1.08%):      Histidine strengthens nerve relays, especially in the auditory organs. 

  It has been used to reverse some cases of deafness.


PROLINE (2.97%):      Proline is a precursor of Glutamic Acid.


SERINE (4.00%):      Serine helps form the protective fatty sheaths surrounding nerve fibers.


TYROSINE (4.60%):      Tyrosine slows the aging of cells & suppresses hunger centers in the hypothalamus; 

                                           it is involved in proper coloration of hair and skin, including protection from sunburn.



Although proteins are the building blocks of life, many trace minerals can profoundly affect health and metabolism.

The water spirulina favors are so saturated with minerals deposited from ancient soils & mountains that no other plants

can live there- and because spirulina thrives in such alkaline waters, it incorporates & synthesizes many minerals & derivative

compounds into its cell structure.  Transformed into natural organic forms by spirulina, minerals become chelated with

amino acids and are therefore more easily assimilated by the body.  Many times people have ingested large amounts of

inorganic minerals without benefit to health because the body does not know what to do with these incompatible forms.

In fact, evidence is accumulating that the inorganic minerals can block absorption of the organic forms,

ultimately leading to mineral deficiency diseases. 


Spirulina contains essential minerals & trace elements absorbed during its growth into these chelated, easily absorbed forms:


BIOTIN (0.4 mg/kg):  An enzyme that during certain biochemical reactions carries CO, is involved in carbohydrate

metabolism, & acts as a co-enzyme in the assimilation of other B-complex vitamins. 

Biotin is destroyed by eating raw eggs & some kinds of raw fish.


CALCIUM (1,315 mg/kg):  The most abundant mineral in the body, it is especially important to bone and dental health, but

is also involved in neural transmissions to the muscles.  Spirulina supplies about as much calcium, gram for gram, as milk.


COBALAMIN or B12 (2 mg/kg):  The most difficult of all vitamins to obtain from vegetable sources.  A B12 deficiency results in pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, premature senility, pronounced fatigue and mental illnesses resembling schizophrenia.


FOLIC ACID (0.5 mg/kg):  Folic Acid is essential to proper hemoglobin formation in red blood cells.

Deficiency results in anemia, poor growth, skin pigmentation disorders & premature graying of the hair.


INOSITOL (350 mg/kg):  A vital lipotropic nutrient that sustains liver health and helps detoxify carcinogens, particularly excess female hormones; helps normalize blood cholesterol levels.  Along with choline, Inositol is used by the liver to manufacture lecithin.  Inositol is the second most abundant vitamin in the body, after niacin; recent studies indicate that Inositol, with Biotin, reduces loss of scalp hair.


IRON (580 mg/kg):  Iron promotes the formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying blood pigment found in healthy

red blood cells. Iron deficiency is most common among women in their reproductive years.


MAGNESIUM (1,915 mg/kg):  Magnesium deficiency can lead to spasmodic muscle disorders, including cardiac irregularities; 

Magnesium helps the assimilation of vitamin C, B vitamins and protein.


MANGANESE (25 mg/kg):  Manganese activates enzyme systems, along with zinc; it promotes activity of neurotransmitter Acetylcholine, and helps stabilize blood sugar.


NIACIN (118 mg/kg):  Also known as Nicotinic Acid & Niacinamide.  Niacin is essential to mental health.  Dr. Abram Hoffer, 

a renowned pioneer in orthomolecular psychiatry, has completely relieved schizophrenic symptoms using niacin.

The Physicians' Desk Reference, a pharmaceutical text used by doctors when prescribing medication, recognizes niacin as

an effective cholesterol-lowering agent.


PANTOTHENIC ACID (11 mg/kg):  The "stress" vitamin, used by the adrenal glands, along with cholesterol & vitamin C, 

to manufacture cortisone and other steroids in response to physical & mental stress.

Pantothenic Acid deficiency promotes allergy sensitivities, infections, & degenerative diseases such as arthritis & rheumatism. 

Ulcers & hypoglycemia have also been associated with shortages of this vitamin.


PHOSPHORUS (8,942 mg/kg):  The second most abundant mineral in the human body, found in practically every cell;

It functions with calcium to maintain bone density; helps to digest carbohydrates and the B vitamins niacin and riboflavin. 

Phosphorous supplies many of the vitamins essential for human beings to carry on the metabolic processes.


POTASSIUM (15,400 mg/kg):  A crucial mineral that regulates body electrolyte balance; deficiency can cause heart arrest, hypertension, adrenal exhaustion & muscular collapse.


PYRIDOXINE or B6 (3 mg/kg):  Pyridoxine is involved in breakdown and assimilation of protein; It protects cardiac health, reduces edema & stabilizes female hormone levels.  Dr. Carl Pfeiffer has demonstrated that B6, together with the mineral

zinc, can cure some forms of schizophrenia.


RIBOFLAVIN or B2 (40 mg/kg):  The most common vitamin deficiency is that of riboflavin; can result in cataracts,

failing vision, watery eyes and uncontrollable eczema.


SELENIUM (0.40 ppm):  Originally believed to be a toxic heavy metal, but now known to be necessary for health; 

Selenium retards aging, harmful oxidation and free radical formation, reduces the toxic effect of carcinogens,

and improves cardiac efficiency.


THIAMINE or B1 (55 mg/kg):  A co-enzyme effective in the breakdown of dietary carbohydrates; Thiamine helps maintain

proper levels of glucose in the blood.  A Thiamine deficiency results in weakness, cardiac damage, abdominal distention &

poor oxygenation; severe shortage results in death; critical toxemia develops from un-metabolized carbohydrate fragments.


TOCOPHEROL or VITAMIN E (190 mg/kg):  Spirulina contains more vitamin E per gram than pure wheat germ.  

This vital nutrient protects heart & vascular health, promotes oxygenation of cells, and retards aging.


ZINC (39 mg/kg):  The pivot point of over thirty vital enzymatic reactions, with profound effects on mental health, skin tone, prostate function and healing capacity.




 Some substances in plant foods are not true vitamins, but provide the precursors from which the body can then synthesize

the appropriate vitamins.  The carotenoid compounds of spirulina are of this nature, since they're used to produce vitamin A.

True vitamin A is found in the pre-formed state only in animal sources, such as liver.  This is the form of vitamin A

sometimes associated with toxicity and overdose, since it is fat-soluble and is not readily excreted from the body.


In contrast, the carotenoid complexes found in vegetable foods are converted to vitamin A only as it is needed,

thus minimizing the dangers of toxicity.  Spirulina and other algae are a primary source of vitamin A precursors-

it is from algae carotenoids that fish livers derive and concentrate vitamin A.


Spirulina contains the yellow/orange pigments cryptoxanthine and beta-carotene from which vitamin A can be made.

Two units of carotene will normally yield one unit of complete vitamin A, if required by the body.

Spirulina contains 4,000 mg/kg carotenoids in these forms:

Alpha-carotene – traces

Beta-carotene:  1,700 mg/kg

Xanthophylls:  1,000 mg/kg

Cryptoxanthin:  556 mg/kg

Echinenone:  439 mg/kg

Zeaxanthin:  316 mg/kg

Lutein:  289 mg/kg


Enzymatic pigments:

The protein, mineral & vitamin value of spirulina is impressive; this minute organism is also rich in pigments bio-chemically

important to life; without pigments, organisms couldn't synthesize many of the enzymes necessary for balancing metabolism.



The most visible pigment in spirulina is chlorophyll, a green molecule common to plants which releases ions when struck by

the energy of sunlight.  These free ions proceed to stimulate the biochemical reactions that form proteins, vitamins & sugars.

Chlorophyll is called "green blood" because of its similarity to the hemoglobin molecule found in human blood cells. 

In fact, both are constructed of almost identical molecular structures called Pyrrole rings- substances chemically

known by scientists as "Porphyrin Pigments".  

The difference is that chlorophyll contains a magnesium ion at its core, while hemoglobin contains an iron molecule. 

Magnesium imparts a green color to the chlorophyll molecule and is involved in synthesis of other materials, while iron gives

hemoglobin a red coloration and changes the function of the Porphyrin molecule to respiration and breakdown of materials.

It's believed that if chlorophyll is ingested with sufficient iron, the magnesium can be displaced to yield a hemoglobin molecule.

Experiments in Japan have demonstrated that spirulina has a marked positive effect on anemia, possibly due to the

conversion of chlorophyll into hemoglobin.  Of course, the high nutrient density of spirulina, especially the blood-building

vitamins B12, folic acid and the amino acids, are also useful in treating cases of anemia.

Chlorophyll has other positive benefits to the body- it increases peristaltic action- which relieves constipation; it

normalizes the secretion of digestive acids and soothes inflammation; it reduces the excess pepsin secretion associated

with gastric ulcers.  During World War II, the drying action of chlorophyll and its antiseptic qualities made it a common

first-aid measure to prevent festering of wounds.  In addition, chlorophyll soothes swelling and promotes granulation,

the process that regenerates new tissue over injuries.  

Chlorophyll appears to promote the regeneration of damaged liver cells, as well as increase circulation to all organs by

dilating blood vessels.  In the heart, chlorophyll aids in the transmission of nerve impulses that control contraction;

when the heart rate is slowed each contraction has increased power improvoing the overall efficiency of cardiac work.



The pigment which gives spirulina its blue cast is Phycocyanin, found in concentrations of about 7 percent- 

compared to the 1 percent content of chlorophyll found in spirulina. Phycocyanin is related to the human pigment Bilirubin,

which is important to healthy liver function and digestion of amino acids.



Another important pigment is Porphyrin, a red compound that forms the active nucleus of hemoglobin.

Related to this structure, is the Polypyrrole molecule of B12, which is essential to the formation of healthy red blood cells. 

These and several lesser pigments such as Phycoerythrin, Tetrapyrrole, Phytonadione and the Carotenoids are not just

the "color" of living organisms, but are used to carry on metabolic processes throughout the body;

without them, enzymatic reactions would reduce until cellular disintegration occurred.



Fats, sugars, salts and calories:

It may be hard to imagine that spirulina- such a concentrated source of nutrients- isn't loaded with fats, starches 

& calories.  Amazingly, spirulina is only 7 percent lipid, & mostly in the form of essential fatty acids that promote cholesterol normalization.  The essential fatty acids sometimes called vitamin F, include Linolenic and Arachidonic acid, both used by the body to manufacture Prostaglandins, the hormonal regulators of blood pressure and capillary resilience.  These essential fatty acids are involved in respiration of all cells, and are especially important to oxygen transport.  They affect the health of the hair, skin & nails, & help break up cholesterol in the blood stream; they aren't dangerous fats- they are absolutely vital to health.


Spirulina contains very little starch or sugar; what carbohydrate it supplies (roughly 10 to 15 percent) is primarily in the

form of Rhamnose & Glycogen.  These two polysaccharides are easily absorbed by human cells with minimal intervention

by insulin.  Hence, spirulina sugars provide speedy energy, without taxing the pancreas or precipitating hypoglycemia.

From a caloric standpoint, spirulina nutrition is exceptionally economical.  There are only [approximately] 3.9 calories per

gram of protein obtained from spirulina.  One would have to consume about 65 calories of beef to obtain 1 gram of protein. 

The average 500 mg of spirulina contains only one to two calories!  Some people are concerned about sodium in their diets,

and have therefore avoided seaweed foods such as nori, wakami and kombu; these kelp foods are very nutritious, but they

do contain significant sodium amounts; spirulina avoids the sodium problems of algae that grow in the sea, yielding only

0.206 mg of sodium per 500mg.  Most hypertension patients are restricted to 2,000 mg or less of sodium per day;

Spirulina has such small amounts of sodium that no danger is presented to persons on a salt-restricted diet.

                                       GENERAL COMPOSITION













Vitamin A (100% Beta-Carotene)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B12



Folic Acid

Pantothenic Acid

10 mg

15,030 IU

102 mcg

99 mcg

621 mcg

13.2 mcg

6.6 mcg

2.04 mg

0.969 mg

0.9 mcg

12 mcg


Omega 6 Family

Gamma Linolenic (GLA)

Essential Linolenic

Dihomogamma Linolenic

Omega 3 Family

Alpha Linolenic

Docosahexaenoic (DHA)

Monoenoic Family




30 mg

33 mg

1.59 mg

0.0435 mg

0.0435 mg


5.94 mg

0.51 mg?














12 mg

14.4 mg

3.18 mg

31.2 mg

45.6 mg

21.9 mg

78 mcg

36 mcg

30 mcg

  3 mcg

  3 mcg


Beta-carotene 9-cis

Beta-carotene 13-cis

Beta-carotene 15-cis

Beta-carotene all-trans



              Total carotenoids*


Superoxide Dismutase**

1.60 mg

0.51 mg

0.12 mg

7.80 mg

0.95 mg

23.70 mg

14 mg

333 mg

2640 units

*Includes alpha carotene, beta cryptoxanthin & others.

**Reported as units Ferric S.O.D.


† The information contained on this page of our website is for general information purposes only. The information was gathered from a variety of reliable sources and whilst we endeavor to keep the information up-to-date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the the information, or related graphics contained on this page for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.  In no event will we be liable for any loss or damage including without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage, or any loss or damage whatsoever arising from, out of, or in connection with the use of the information on this page or the rest of our website.

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